Credit: 5 Cs of Credit

Jun 6th, 2020

In finance, the creditworthiness of a lender determines how worthy a lender is of a loan in Nigeria. A person’s creditworthiness is what creditors or lending institutions look at before they approve a loan or credit.

Several factors determine the creditworthiness of a person, such as payment history and credit score. The Five Cs of credit are the five methods of evaluating a borrower for a loan. It also considers information about the loan. Let’s look at the five Cs below:


Character refers to the credit history of a borrower. This is a track record of the borrower for repaying debts since history is the best predictor of the future. Lending institutions demand a certain amount of management or ownership experience. A lender will review the personal credit of borrowers and their guarantors before a loan is granted.

Data gathered from these reports help lenders evaluate a borrower’s credit risk.

Most lending institutions require a minimum credit score before they approve a loan. This will vary depending on the financial institution. The higher the credit score of a lender, the higher the likelihood of being approved. The credit score of a borrower is also used to determine the rates and terms of loans.


The interest rate and amount of principal affect the conditions of a loan, it influences the desire to approve a loan. Conditions may also include how a borrower intends to use the credit. Other conditions, such as the state of the economy or legislative changes, also affect the terms of the loan.


The potential of a borrower to repay a loan is what capacity measures. This would entail the cash flow of a borrower. A borrower should have sufficient cash flow to get a higher credit score. Lenders may inquire about the time a borrower has been employed or the number of years in business to ensure stability.


Lenders consider the capital a borrower puts forward towards any investment. For example, if you were to purchase a car and you have put up a down payment of over 50% of the cost of the vehicle needing only about 50% to 30% loan, lenders are more likely to score such borrower higher on the credit score. This shows that the chances of default by the borrower are low. A substantial down payment can also affect the rates and terms of an applicant’s loan.


Collaterals help loan applicants secure loans. They are used as leverages in case a borrower defaults on a loan. Loans that are secured by some form of security are usually offered with lower interest rates and contain better terms than other unsecured types of loans. The lender capitalises on the assurance that if a borrower defaults, the lender can recoup their loss by repossessing the collateral.


Understanding the fives Cs of credit is crucial to your approval of a loan. It helps a borrower prepare their credit score ahead of a loan application. Default in one area can affect your credit score from a lender.

Financial organizations attempt to reduce the risk of lending to borrowers by performing credit analysis on individuals and businesses applying for credit or loan. So, with the Five Cs, you should work on improving your credit score, and endeavour to save up for larger down payments to give you higher chances for a loan.

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